This liquidity crisis, along with deep structural weaknesses in the ecosystem, has further triggered an unprecedented economic conundrum. Your Bourse Liquidity aggregator is connected to 30+ industry-leading liquidity providers price feeds. The liquidity is aggregated into unique liquidity streams for Forex, CFDs, and cryptocurrencies. By setting up liquidity aggregation rules and parameters most suitable for their order flow, brokers deliver tighter spreads and bespoke execution to their clients. One common objection is that many complex factors, not just liquidity preference, determine interest rates.
Structural infirmities on multiple fronts is compounded by massive unscrupulous Chinese imports since the mid-2000s. It has systemically damaged the structural configuration of the economy in terms of consumption, manufacturing, savings, investment, employment, money supply, black money and trade competitiveness. The rationale and necessity of formalisation of huge unaccounted business funds at a nominal penalty and a framework for implementing the same are discussed in my article (
BusinessLine , February 10, 2019). This can help in overcoming the liquidity crisis efficiently, effectively and speedily, while simultaneously generating extra revenue. Financial crises emanate from shocks, which often are amplified by vulnerabilities or imbalances in the financial system.
Moreover, the traditional method to estimate F&V losses by mass may overestimate the contribution of heavier, “low-value products” (FAO, 2019, p. xiii). Whilst the average supply quantity displays seasonality, 85% of supplies remain between 250 and 500 kg/farmer/week (Figure 3d). In turn, the average revenue equalled 4,200 Rs/farmer/week (average of 2.5 supplies per week), forex liquidity aggregation with revenues peaking during the onset of the monsoon season as F&V supplies begin to wane (Figure 3e). However, Loop transport has become more expensive for farmers over time (Figure 3f) due to the retraction of subsidies provided by Digital Green, which averaged 72% of the transport cost in 2016, but 34% of the transport cost for the first 9 months of 2018 .
With MTF, traders have almost the same rights as banks because all orders match in one centralized order book. This aggregation allows traders to simultaneously obtain streamed prices from multiple LPs or liquidity pools. Currency is considered the most liquid asset possible because it can be exchanged for anything, including another currency. Liquidity can be defined as the ability of an asset to be converted into money without losing its value.
This ensures continuity of operations and minimizes disruptions for both brokers and their clients. Liquidity aggregation broadens the scope of available trading opportunities, empowering businesses to explore diverse markets, instruments, and asset classes. With access to multiple providers, B2B enterprises can expand their reach and tap into new revenue streams while managing risk effectively. Your Bourse, a leading trade execution technology company, continues to add new features allowing brokers to get more control and insights that minimize risk and protect profits. The recently released features can be accessed by all Your Bourse Platform-as-a-Service clients, as Your Bourse looks to strengthen its position in the market. Further, the empirical evidence for the impact of liquidity preference on interest rates is mixed.
Farmer 4 in Buxar district noted that “the convenience [of Loop] has freed up the rest of my morning”, with farmers now investing the spare time into recreation, as well as on-farm, domestic and secondary revenue generating activities. Loop first established a diversity of aggregation products between January 2016 and June 2017 (Figure 3a), before dramatically intensifying aggregation quantities during the second half of 2017 (Figure 3b). Building on the characteristics of the wider value chain, this section outlines the spatiotemporal evolution of the Loop aggregation system, before discussing its interactions with the barriers to improving F&V delivery to access-vulnerable consumers. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first critical analysis of horticultural aggregation through a consumer-sensitive lens. The policy-relevant lessons are pertinent to the equitable and sustainable development of horticultural systems both in Bihar and in similar low- and middle-income settings. With many products, actual contractual maturities are sufficient in terms of modeling impact on liquidity gaps.
Expansionary fiscal policy, which increases government spending or cuts taxes, can lower liquidity preference by stimulating economic growth and confidence, leading to lower interest rates. Contractionary fiscal policies often raise liquidity preference because of heightened uncertainty, putting upward pressure on rates. Liquidity preference theory provides a useful framework for investors to consider when making asset allocation and risk-management decisions. Investors can apply their understanding of liquidity preference to choose assets and strategies that align with their liquidity needs and risk tolerance. His economic theories, collectively termed Keynesian economics, fundamentally changed how governments and financial institutions perceive and respond to economic crises and helped shape postwar economic thinking. He championed the idea that government intervention is crucial to stabilizing economies during financial downturns.
In peri-urban Bihar, local F&V markets consist of 20–30 retailers, whilst rural village haats may consist of only 20 farmers retailing their own harvests to local consumers. Therefore, as the points of contact for relatively access-vulnerable consumers, F&V retailers are key to regulating the flows and prices of F&V in peri-urban and rural markets. Furthermore, farmers may sell to farmgate traders who purchase from multiple farmers within one village.
- High inflation is eroding real incomes, triggering a global cost-of-living crisis that has pushed millions into poverty and economic hardship.
- Your Bourse, a leading trade execution technology company, continues to add new features allowing brokers to get more control and insights that minimize risk and protect profits.
- A liquidity provider can be compared to wholesale suppliers, but instead of supplying goods, LPs provide liquidity.
Several of the region’s economies benefited from relocation of businesses and residents and capital inflows, experiencing faster-than-expected growth in 2022. Overall, aggregate GDP of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Georgia (excluding Ukraine) is expected to contract by 1 per cent in 2023, following an estimated decline of 1.6 per cent in 2022. A liquidity aggregator itself is a specific computer algorithm that scans various liquidity sources and performs aggregation.
Horticultural marketing is predominantly traditional, informal and unregulated (Kumari et al., 2020; World Bank, 2007). The vast majority of F&V production is sold fresh, with the state’s 290 cold storage units “almost exclusively used for the storage of potato” (Minten et al., 2011, p. 5). Bihar’s horticultural system is therefore characterised by a network of marginal landholdings and production systems that are vulnerable to climate-driven losses, seasonality and wastage.
Bank working capital and TC form interdependent and inter-locked functional links along the financing network. Easy monetary policy and boosting banks’ resources to encourage bank credit flows will be of limited help without strengthening of the TC channel, as bank credit ultimately travels through the TC chain. To summarize, shocks can create rapid shifts in the demand for liquidity that lead to severe financial market dysfunction. To the extent that announcements of central bank actions can reduce that liquidity demand and encourage a return to normal investing and market-making activity, they can significantly improve conditions even with little or no actual activity. However, the most immediate liquidity needs are unlikely to be resolved by announcements alone and thus require active operations to address them. Central banks should maintain a comprehensive set of tools, some of which are available to meet the most immediate needs, to address these circumstances.
Given that day-to-day participation in aggregation is voluntary, changes to aggregation supply pathways must consider potential feedbacks on market access, costs and revenues. For example, if Loop remains relatively profitable, the numbers of aggregating farmers may continue to increase and/or farmers may aggregate more frequently. Yet, based on the aggregation scheme’s evolution to date, doing nothing may strengthen the flows of F&V to urban hubs, with potentially limited benefits for relatively isolated https://www.xcritical.in/ local markets. Companies trading on Serenity on behalf of a large number of traders are considered institutional clients. Among them are exchanges, cryptocurrency funds, trust management systems, and other financial organizations participating in the cryptocurrency market. OneZero is a leading provider of liquidity aggregation and distribution solutions, offering a scalable and reliable infrastructure that connects brokers with diverse liquidity sources, including banks, ECNs, and exchanges.
In Western Asia, oil-producing countries have emerged from the economic slump, benefitting from high prices and rising oil output as well as the recovery of the tourism sector. Recovery in non-oil-producing countries, by contrast, has remained weak amid tightening access to international finance and severe fiscal constraints. Average growth is projected to slow from an estimated 6.6 per cent in in 2022 to 3.5 per cent in 2023 amid worsening external conditions (figure 3). Among the biggest LAs that collect liquidity from different liquidity providers in Forex, you can find such as smartTrade LiquidityFX, Liquid-X, FlexTrade, BidFX, Quotix, Integral, Currenex, MarketFactory, EBS Direct, DealHub, Seamless FX, and many others. MTF guarantees an order execution at the set price since it requires no transaction confirmation from a counterparty.